“Autonomous Vehicles” and their implications on Safety, Security, and Privacy are heavily debated by regulators, industry, advocates, and consumers worldwide. They all rely on a standardized definition of the Levels of Driving Automation. Despite all the debate and fascination with “self-driving cars” there are no highly automated (level 3 and above) vehicles commercially available to consumers today.
On the contrary, “Connected Vehicles” are not as debated, yet are widely available and pose equally serious challenges to Safety, Security, and Privacy of drivers, vehicle occupants, and even consumers who just happen to be in range of some of these vehicles.
Levels of Driving Connectivity
To facilitate the debate of these technologies in a manner similar to AVs, Privacy4Cars proposed a standardized definition of the Levels of Driving Connectivity parallel to the Society of Automobile Engineers’ (SAE International) framework. Vehicles with no connectivity are defined as Level 0, vehicles meeting the bare minimum requirements to be “Connected Devices” under generally accepted laws (e.g. GDPR and CCPA) are defined as Level 1, and the highest possible level of connectivity “Vehicles to Everything” or V2X is defined as Level 5.